The Battle of Manzikert occurred on August 26, 1071 between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp Arslan, resulting in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes.
Years and decades later, Manzikert came to be seen as a disaster for the Byzantine Empire; later sources greatly exaggerate the numbers of troops and the numbers of casualties. The usurpation of Andronicus Ducas also politically destabilized the empire, and it was difficult to organize a resistance to the Turkish migrations that followed the battle. Within the next few decades almost all of Asia Minor was overrun by the Seljuks.
Ottoman State | Osmanli Devleti
The Ottoman state is formed by Osman Bey from whom it takes its Turkish name Osmanli. To help win a major battle, Osman leads his troops and displaces the Seljuk Turks. He becomes the leader of the new Ottoman dynasty.
The First Capital of Ottoman Empire
The Siege of Bursa occurred from 1317/20 until the capture on 6 April 1326, when the Ottomans deployed a bold plan to seize Bursa. The Ottomans had not captured a city before; the lack of expertise and adequate siege equipment at this stage of the war meant that the city fell only after six or nine years. According to some sources Osman I died of natural causes just before the fall of the city, while others suggest that he lived long enough to hear about the victory on his death-bed and was buried in Bursa afterwards.
Civil war, then victory (1402 - 1413. Bayezid's sons fight for control. In 1413 Mehmed wins and reunites the empire. He dies in 1421.
The Conquest of Constantinople
Mehmed II lays siege to the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453. He uses siege guns and bombards the walls for eight weeks. Heavy fighting continues, but the Byzantine capital is defeated when Emperor Constantine XI dies in battle. The city is now called Istanbul.
Mehmed II rules for thirty years. During his reign Istanbul becomes a political, cultural, and economic center. Mosques, bazaars, roads, inns, and baths are built. The Ottoman Turks slowly eroded Roman, or Byzantine, power over the course of centuries. By 1453, the Byzantine Empire consisted of the city of Constantinople and little else. In the end, gunpowder eradicated the Ottoman’s final obstacle to capturing Constantinople and toppling the Eastern Roman Empire.
Following the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Ottomans regarded themselves as the "heirs" of Byzantium and preserved important aspects of its tradition, which in turn facilitated an "Orthodox revival" during the post-communist period of the Eastern European states. The modern-day Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest Christian church in the world.
Suleyman the Magnificent
One of the best known and most powerful leaders of the empire is Suleyman I, known as Suleyman the Magnificent. He conquers parts of western Asia and southeast Europe in his desire to convert people to Islam. The Ottoman Empire reaches its peak under his rule.
At Suleyman I's death, his son Selim II rules. However, he is not like his father. He never goes to fight battles and his government is unstable. During his reign the Turkish fleet is smashed at the Battle of Lepanto in Greece.
Ottoman - Venetians Wars
Poor leaders continue, reducing the Ottomoan threat upon the European world. Fighting begins with the Persians and continues until 1639. The Turks, however, do capture Crete from the Venetians in that year. The Ottomans try to conquer Venice in 1683, but fail. In 1697, as Austrian troops push into the Ottoman territory in Hungary, the Turks are defeated at Zenta. To keep peace the Turks give up much of their land in that region.
Ottoman - Persian Wars
The Ottomans try to conquer Venice in 1683, but fail. In 1697, as Austrian troops push into the Ottoman territory in Hungary, the Turks are defeated at Zenta. To keep peace the Turks give up much of their land in that region.
Starting in 1821, Greece revolts against the Ottomans. A long struggle ensues with the Greeks eventually getting help from Britain, France, and Russia. They win their independence in 1830.
Sultan Abdulhamit's Era
Abdulhamit II tries to instill reforms into the empire, including adding a constitution and a parliament. These reforms fail, however. In 1878 the Congress of Berlin acknowledges the independence of Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria.
The Young Turk Revolution
The Young Turk Revolution occurs in 1908, attempting to overthrow the Ottoman Empire with the hopes of introducing a constitutional government and promoting all-Turk equality (at the expense of minorities).Led by the young Turkish bourgeoisie class (made of mostly intellectuals and military officers), the revolt is eventually subdued but sets the stage for the more successful Kemalist Revolution to come
The Balkan Wars & WW1
Though actually two different battles, the goal of the Balkan Wars is to take over the European lands that belong to the Ottoman Empire. Its efforts are successful.
1914. The End of a war & an Empire During World War I, the Ottoman Empire sides with the Central Powers. They lose the war, and peace treaties cause the empire to dissolve. The Republic of Turkey is established in 1923. Although in power for over 600 years, the Ottoman Empire will best be remembered for its glory years of strong leadership and cultural influences that affected the lands they conquered.
From Ottoman Empire to Republic of Turkey
Following WWI, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states. The Turkish War of Independence (1919–22), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Ever since Turkey's NATO membership in 1952, the North Atlantic Alliance has played a central role in Turkey’s security and contributed to its integration with the Euro-Atlantic community. Turkey, in return, has successfully assumed its responsibilities in defending the common values of the Alliance.